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Soilless culture is a new crop cultivation technology developed in recent decades. Crops are not cultivated in the soil, but are planted in an aqueous solution (nutrient solution) dissolved with minerals; or in a certain cultivation substrate, the nutrient solution is used for crop cultivation. As long as there are certain cultivation equipment and certain management measures, crops can grow normally and obtain high yields. Because it does not use natural soil, but uses nutrient solution to irrigate crops, it is called soilless cultivation.
The characteristic of soilless culture is to replace the soil environment with the artificially created crop root growth environment. It can not only meet the requirements of crops for nutrients, moisture, air and other conditions, but also control and adjust these requirements to promote better crop growth. , And get better nutritional growth in reproductive growth balance. Therefore, soilless crops usually grow well, have high yields, and are of high quality.
There are so many types and methods of soilless cultivation that it is difficult to classify them in detail. They can only be roughly divided into two categories: substrate-free cultivation and substrate cultivation according to their fixing methods.
(1) Substrate-free cultivation: hydroponics and spray culture.
(2) Substrate cultivation: peat, rice husk, bark, perlite, rock wool, ceramsite, gravel, sponge soil and other substrate fixed cultivation
Hydroponics is a new type of plant soilless cultivation method, also known as nutrient solution culture. Its core is to directly soak the roots of plants in nutrient solution. This nutrient solution can replace soil and provide plants with water, nutrients, oxygen, etc. Growth factors enable plants to grow normally.
The hydroponic nutrient solution contains trace elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, etc.) necessary for the growth of plants. All the elements are matched in proper proportions so that the plants can grow in the best state. Most of the nutrient solution is prepared by the mother liquor method. The mother liquor is usually divided into A solution (calcium nitrate salt), B solution (phosphate salt) and C solution (iron salt). According to the appropriate method and water ratio, the final product Nutrient solution.
There are 3 common types of hydroponics:
1. Deep Flow Technique
2. Nutrient Film Technique
3. Floating Capillary Hydroponics
The nutrient solution mother liquor and water are configured into a nutrient solution according to the corresponding proportioning method and stored in the liquid storage tank. By monitoring the pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and other water quality parameters of the nutrient solution in the storage tank, the nutrient solution can be automatically supplied to ensure a balanced ratio of nutrient elements in the hydroponic nutrient solution, which is suitable for plant growth and development, and can be effectively absorbed by plants Use to ensure that the hydroponic plants on the cultivation bed are always in the best growth and development state. At the same time, after filtration, disinfection and other procedures, the nutrient solution is recycled, saving costs.
pH: The pH of the nutrient solution should be appropriate for plants to absorb and utilize nutrients. Generally, the pH should be controlled at around 6.5 (6-6.9pH)
Conductivity: The salt content of the nutrient solution is particularly important. The higher the salt content, the greater the conductivity. By measuring the conductivity, the total salt content in the nutrient solution can be reflected. Generally, the conductivity should be controlled at 2000～3000us/cm.
Dissolved oxygen: The normal growth and metabolism of plants need to absorb oxygen, and the water quality of the nutrient solution is also related to dissolved oxygen. Generally, the dissolved oxygen is controlled at 4～5mg/L.